By Christian Dani, Nathalie Billon (auth.), Michael E. Symonds (eds.)
This publication is designed to supply a entire perception into present views and demanding situations in adipose tissue biology. In <i>Adipose Tissue Biology</i>, scientists and clinicians speak about adipocyte precursors, differentiation and development, brown and white adipose tissue, gender, irritation, nutritional and genetic determinants of fats mass, including evolutionary and developmental features of adiposity.
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Additional resources for Adipose Tissue Biology
J Nutr 130: 3122S–3126S Ortega FJ, Moreno-Navarrete JM, Ribas V et al (2009) Subcutaneous fat shows higher thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 gene expression than omental fat. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:2134–2141 Ortega FJ, Moreno-Navarrete JM, Pardo G et al (2010) MiRNA expression profile of human subcutaneous adipose and during adipocyte differentiation. PLoS One 5(2):e9022 Pairault J, Green H (1979) A study of the adipose conversion of suspended 3T3 cells by using glycerophosphate dehydrogenase as differentiation marker.
Whenever protons re-enter the matrix without concomitant ATP synthesis, the energy formerly stored in the proton gradient is released as heat. The diminished proton gradient has to be restored by electron-driven proton pumping leading to oxygen consumption. Therefore, protons leaking through the membrane cause an “uncoupling” of oxygen consumption from ATP production (Fig. 2). Uncoupling (=proton leak) is a constant process in all mitochondria and accounts for more than 20% of total oxygen consumption in mammals (Rolfe and Brand 1996).
Further research is necessary to gain insight in the molecular processes that are involved in adipocyte differentiation, connecting extranuclear and nuclear mediators. New areas, as epigenetic, microRNAs and circadian clock, also need to be more investigated. An in-depth knowledge of adipocyte differentiation is absolutely essential to gain insight in the treatment of important metabolic diseases associated 2 Adipocyte Differentiation 33 with obesity and adipose tissue expandability, such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Adipose Tissue Biology by Christian Dani, Nathalie Billon (auth.), Michael E. Symonds (eds.)