By Bert B. Williams, John L. Gidley, Robert S. Schechter
SPE Monograph quantity 6. This monograph has been ready to function a easy reference for either the sector and examine engineer drawn to constructing a primary knowing of the acidizing procedure and methods for designing acid remedies to extend good productiveness.
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Extra info for Acidizing Fundamentals
However, transesterification is an equilibrium reaction in which a large excess of alcohol is required to drive the reaction to the right. For maximum conversion to the ester, a molar ratio of 6:1 should be used. The molar ratio has no effect on acid, peroxide, saponification, and iodine value of methyl esters (Tomasevic and Marinkovic 2003). However, the high molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil interferes with the separation of glycerin because there is an increase in solubility. When glycerin remains in solution, it helps drive the equilibrium back to the left, lowering the yield of esters.
The rate of reaction was slowest when catalyzed by CaO. Magnesium oxide and calcium hydroxide showed no catalytic activity in rapeseed oil methanolysis. Acid-catalyzed transesterification was studied with waste vegetable oil. 25 M HCl in the presence of 100% excess alcohol. 25 M H2SO4 and the decrease in viscosity was observed. 25 M concentration (Mohamad and Ali 2002). Although chemical transesterification using an alkaline catalysis process gives high conversion levels of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl esters in short reaction times, the reaction has several drawbacks: • • • • • It is energy intensive.
The reaction proceeds if methoxide ions are present in the reaction medium. The alkaline– earth metal hydroxide-, alkoxide-, and oxide-catalyzed reaction proceeds slowly as the reaction mixture constitutes a three-phase system oil–methanol catalyst that, for diffusion reasons, inhibits the reaction (Gryglewicz 1999). The catalytic activity of magnesium oxide, calcium hydroxide, calcium oxide, calcium methoxide, barium hydroxide, and (for comparison) sodium hydroxide during the transesterification of rapeseed oil was investigated.
Acidizing Fundamentals by Bert B. Williams, John L. Gidley, Robert S. Schechter