Read e-book online A treatise on algebraic plane curves PDF

By Julian Lowell Coolidge

ISBN-10: 0486495760

ISBN-13: 9780486495767

An intensive creation to the speculation of algebraic aircraft curves and their kinfolk to numerous fields of geometry and research. nearly fullyyt constrained to the houses of the final curve, and mainly employs algebraic approach. Geometric tools are a lot hired, despite the fact that, in particular these regarding the projective geometry of hyperspace. 1931 variation. 17 illustrations.

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Clearly 0 E p, p + p 9P, -p =p and Pp 9p. Then Ap = (P U -P)p 9 Pp U -Pp C p. 32 2. KRIVINE'S POSITIVSTELLENSATZ This proves p is an ideal. Suppose ab E p, a, b p. Replacing a, b by -a, -b if necessary, we can assume a, b V P. Thus -1 E P + aP, -1 E P + bP, so -1 = sl + atl, -1 = s2 + bt2i si, ti E P, i = 1, 2. Then abtlt2 = (-tia)(-t2b) = (1 + sl)(1 + s2) = 1 + s1 + s2 + S02, so -1 = sl + S2 + s182 - abtlt2. Since ab E p, and p is an ideal, this is an element of P, a contradiction. This proves p is prime.

Once this is done, we finish by proving (4). (1) = (2). Suppose f > 0 on Ks. We go to one higher dimension. Notation: (x, y) = (x1, ... , X,,, Y) E Rn+1, R[X, Y] = R[X1,... , Xn, Y]. ,g9,Yf - 1,-Yf +1}. Then Ks' = {(x, y) E Rn+1 I gi(x) > 0, i = 1, ... , S, yf (x) = 1}. Thus, on Ks,, f (x, y) = f (x) > 0 so, by (1), P '(X, Y) f (X) = 1 + q'(X, Y) for some p', q' E Ts'. Replacing Y by f (X) in this equation and clearing denominators by multiplying both sides by f (X)2m for m sufficiently large, this yields P(X)f(X) = f(X)2- + q(X ) with p(X) = f(X)27p (X, f(X)), q(X) = f(X) To finish the proof it suffices to check that p, q E Ts for m sufficiently large.

6 FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS 19 (3) We know that R[[X, Y]] is a UFD [Z-S, Th. 6, p. 148]. We can assume f 0 0. By the Preparation Theorem [Z-S, Cor. 1, p. 145], the factorization of f into irreducibles in R[[X, Y]] can be expressed in the form f = uXkgk, ... g8', where u is a unit, k > 0, s > 0, ki > 1, and gi = Yli + El' of aijYi, ti > 1, ai3 E R[[X]], ai9 (0) = 0, f o r i = 1'... , s. Claim 1. k is even. Consider the valuation vX on R((X,Y)) with valuation ring R[[X,Y]](x). The residue field is if R XY = if R[[Y]] = R((Y)).

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