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By Dale Jacquette

This selection of newly comissioned essays through foreign members deals a consultant evaluate of an important advancements in modern philosophical logic.

  • Presents controversies in philosophical implications and functions of formal symbolic logic.
  • Surveys significant traits and gives unique insights.

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A good deal of that discussion involves the attempt to deal with these concepts in a logical system. Once again, we find that Greek logical theory developed in response to philosophical questions. 3, Aristotle ascribes the view that the modalities all collapse into one another to “the Megarians” and is at some pains to argue against it. Though he does not tell us who these Megarians were, we can supply a little history from other sources. Euclid of Megara (c. 430–c. 360 BCE), an approximate contemporary of Plato, was a member of Socrates’ circle.

The dialectician investigates relations between (eternal) ideas which have to be respected if the thinking were to be proper. In the sixth century the logical works of Aristotle – Categories, On Interpretation, the two Analytics, the Topics, and On Fallacies – came to be seen as an Organon (instrument, tool), and the term has stuck, for example in Novum Organon (1620), that is, Francis Bacon’s attempt to emend Aristotle’s instruments for reasoning. These names, under which the discipline has been known, relate to different aspects of logic, or of how the subject should be seen.

In order to account for the failure of transitivity in the case of iterated predication, contemporary logical semantics relies only on a (meager) reference relation, both relata of which, namely, the expression and its reference, are construed as things. Medieval logic, to its credit and great advantage, draws upon a richer spectrum of semantic notions. In effect, the medievals split our modern notion of reference into two notions, namely signification and supposition. The language studied by medieval logicians is a highly stylized, technical Latin, with rigid syntactic rules and clear meaning and in this it resembles, not our current metalinguistic predicate-calculus, but rather those interpreted formal languages that were used by Frege and others to inaugurate modern logic.

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A Companion to Philosophical Logic by Dale Jacquette

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